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Great Circle Mapper
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 Distances
From To Initial
Heading
Magnetic
Heading
Distance
Total: 237,913 mi
Average: 1,873 mi
6 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) LGW (51°08'53"N 0°11'25"W) 157157.2°(SE) 160159.6°(S) 357 mi
LGW (51°08'53"N 0°11'25"W) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 100099.8°(E) 100100.4°(E) 3,405 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) RUH (24°57'46"N 46°42'29"E) 270269.7°(W) 268267.7°(W) 543 mi
RUH (24°57'46"N 46°42'29"E) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 086086.1°(E) 083083.0°(E) 543 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) LGW (51°08'53"N 0°11'25"W) 317316.8°(NW) 315314.8°(NW) 3,405 mi
LGW (51°08'53"N 0°11'25"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340339.7°(N) 340340.2°(N) 357 mi
8,610 mi
5 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) FRA (50°02'00"N 8°34'14"E) 124124.5°(SE) 127126.9°(SE) 643 mi
FRA (50°02'00"N 8°34'14"E) NKG (31°45'N 118°52'E) 055054.7°(NE) 052052.4°(NE) 5,378 mi
NKG (31°45'N 118°52'E) PEK (40°04'N 116°36'E) 348348.2°(N) 354353.7°(N) 588 mi
PEK (40°04'N 116°36'E) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 325324.6°(NW) 332331.5°(NW) 5,080 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340340.1°(N) 341340.7°(N) 331 mi
12,021 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 150150.1°(SE) 152152.5°(SE) 541 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) NRT (35°45'55"N 140°23'08"E) 033033.0°(NE) 032032.4°(NE) 6,048 mi
NRT (35°45'55"N 140°23'08"E) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 334333.9°(NW) 341341.2°(N) 6,048 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 335334.8°(NW) 334334.2°(NW) 541 mi
13,178 mi
6 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 100099.9°(E) 103102.7°(E) 3,633 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) MEL (37°40'24"S 144°50'36"E) 125124.9°(SE) 123122.9°(SE) 7,231 mi
MEL (37°40'24"S 144°50'36"E) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 291290.6°(W) 279279.1°(W) 7,231 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 322322.3°(NW) 320320.2°(NW) 3,633 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
21,812 mi
9 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 150150.1°(SE) 152152.5°(SE) 541 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 298297.9°(NW) 297297.3°(NW) 3,751 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) YQB (46°47'28"N 71°23'36"W) 059059.0°(NE) 069069.3°(E) 456 mi
YQB (46°47'28"N 71°23'36"W) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 245244.8°(SW) 261260.7°(W) 456 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) YOW (45°19'21"N 75°40'02"W) 058058.5°(NE) 069068.8°(E) 226 mi
YOW (45°19'21"N 75°40'02"W) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 241241.3°(SW) 255254.6°(W) 226 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 053053.3°(NE) 064063.6°(NE) 3,751 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) NCL (55°02'17"N 1°41'23"W) 338338.2°(N) 338337.6°(N) 454 mi
NCL (55°02'17"N 1°41'23"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 314314.4°(NW) 316315.9°(NW) 91 mi
9,952 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) 085085.5°(E) 088087.8°(E) 624 mi
CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) AAR (56°18'00"N 10°37'08"E) 302301.7°(NW) 298298.0°(NW) 92 mi
AAR (56°18'00"N 10°37'08"E) CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) 120120.0°(SE) 117117.0°(SE) 92 mi
CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 279278.7°(W) 275275.1°(W) 624 mi
1,432 mi
5 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 158157.7°(S) 160160.1°(S) 331 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) SXF (52°22'42"N 13°31'14"E) 079078.6°(E) 079079.2°(E) 600 mi
SXF (52°22'42"N 13°31'14"E) MUC (48°21'14"N 11°47'10"E) 196196.1°(S) 192192.4°(S) 289 mi
MUC (48°21'14"N 11°47'10"E) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 296296.2°(NW) 293293.1°(NW) 587 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340340.1°(N) 341340.7°(N) 331 mi
2,138 mi
6 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) 215214.8°(SW) 217217.2°(SW) 210 mi
DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 290289.5°(W) 293292.6°(NW) 3,278 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) YYC (51°07'21"N 114°00'48"W) 300300.0°(NW) 310310.3°(NW) 1,675 mi
YYC (51°07'21"N 114°00'48"W) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 094094.3°(E) 080080.1°(E) 1,675 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) 051051.0°(NE) 061061.3°(NE) 3,278 mi
DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 032032.4°(NE) 036035.5°(NE) 210 mi
10,327 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) 215214.8°(SW) 217217.2°(SW) 210 mi
DUB (53°25'17"N 6°16'12"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 032032.4°(NE) 036035.5°(NE) 210 mi
420 mi
8 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 100099.9°(E) 103102.7°(E) 3,633 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) BNE (27°23'03"S 153°07'03"E) 112112.4°(E) 110110.4°(E) 7,442 mi
BNE (27°23'03"S 153°07'03"E) MEL (37°40'24"S 144°50'36"E) 212212.1°(SW) 201201.1°(S) 857 mi
MEL (37°40'24"S 144°50'36"E) BNE (27°23'03"S 153°07'03"E) 037036.6°(NE) 025025.1°(NE) 857 mi
BNE (27°23'03"S 153°07'03"E) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 290289.6°(W) 279278.7°(W) 7,442 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 322322.3°(NW) 320320.2°(NW) 3,633 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
23,949 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) EMA (52°49'52"N 1°19'40"W) 158158.2°(S) 161160.6°(S) 231 mi
EMA (52°49'52"N 1°19'40"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340339.9°(N) 341341.0°(N) 231 mi
462 mi
9 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 158157.7°(S) 160160.1°(S) 331 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) 057057.3°(NE) 058058.0°(NE) 5,911 mi
CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) 135134.9°(SE) 138137.8°(SE) 5,769 mi
AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) CHC (43°29'22"S 172°32'04"E) 194194.2°(S) 174174.4°(S) 463 mi
CHC (43°29'22"S 172°32'04"E) TUO (38°44'23"S 176°05'04"E) 031030.7°(NE) 007006.8°(N) 376 mi
TUO (38°44'23"S 176°05'04"E) AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) 329329.0°(NW) 308308.0°(NW) 139 mi
AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) 306305.6°(NW) 286285.8°(W) 5,769 mi
CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 325325.1°(NW) 328328.0°(NW) 5,911 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340340.1°(N) 341340.7°(N) 331 mi
25,000 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 150150.1°(SE) 152152.5°(SE) 541 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) FLR (43°48'36"N 11°12'18"E) 128127.8°(SE) 127127.2°(SE) 547 mi
FLR (43°48'36"N 11°12'18"E) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 314314.0°(NW) 311311.2°(NW) 547 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 335334.8°(NW) 334334.2°(NW) 541 mi
2,176 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) DOH (25°16'23"N 51°36'29"E) 104104.4°(E) 107106.8°(E) 3,451 mi
DOH (25°16'23"N 51°36'29"E) NRT (35°45'55"N 140°23'08"E) 057057.3°(NE) 055054.8°(NE) 5,165 mi
NRT (35°45'55"N 140°23'08"E) DOH (25°16'23"N 51°36'29"E) 290290.4°(W) 298297.8°(NW) 5,165 mi
DOH (25°16'23"N 51°36'29"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 323323.1°(NW) 321320.6°(NW) 3,451 mi
17,232 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 150150.1°(SE) 152152.5°(SE) 541 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) GRU (23°26'08"S 46°28'23"W) 224224.2°(SW) 224223.7°(SW) 5,829 mi
GRU (23°26'08"S 46°28'23"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 030030.0°(NE) 051051.3°(NE) 5,829 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 335334.8°(NW) 334334.2°(NW) 541 mi
12,740 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
83 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
83 mi
11 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 158157.7°(S) 160160.1°(S) 331 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) 057057.3°(NE) 058058.0°(NE) 5,911 mi
CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) NKG (31°45'N 118°52'E) 029029.4°(NE) 032032.3°(NE) 668 mi
NKG (31°45'N 118°52'E) CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) 212212.0°(SW) 218217.5°(SW) 668 mi
CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) 135134.9°(SE) 138137.8°(SE) 5,769 mi
AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) TRG (37°40'19"S 176°11'46"E) 121121.1°(SE) 101101.3°(E) 90 mi
TRG (37°40'19"S 176°11'46"E) CHC (43°29'22"S 172°32'04"E) 204204.5°(SW) 184184.1°(S) 445 mi
CHC (43°29'22"S 172°32'04"E) AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) 016015.7°(N) 352351.9°(N) 463 mi
AKL (37°00'29"S 174°47'30"E) CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) 306305.6°(NW) 286285.8°(W) 5,769 mi
CAN (23°24'N 113°18'E) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 325325.1°(NW) 328328.0°(NW) 5,911 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340340.1°(N) 341340.7°(N) 331 mi
26,356 mi
6 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 150150.1°(SE) 152152.5°(SE) 541 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 298297.9°(NW) 297297.3°(NW) 3,751 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) YOW (45°19'21"N 75°40'02"W) 058058.5°(NE) 069068.8°(E) 226 mi
YOW (45°19'21"N 75°40'02"W) YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) 241241.3°(SW) 255254.6°(W) 226 mi
YYZ (43°40'36"N 79°37'50"W) CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) 053053.3°(NE) 064063.6°(NE) 3,751 mi
CDG (49°00'35"N 2°32'52"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 335334.8°(NW) 334334.2°(NW) 541 mi
9,036 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
83 mi
16 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 158157.7°(S) 160160.1°(S) 331 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) KUL (2°44'44"N 101°42'36"E) 079078.6°(E) 079079.2°(E) 6,593 mi
KUL (2°44'44"N 101°42'36"E) BKI (5°56'14"N 116°03'04"E) 077077.0°(E) 077077.0°(E) 1,013 mi
BKI (5°56'14"N 116°03'04"E) KUL (2°44'44"N 101°42'36"E) 258258.1°(W) 258258.5°(W) 1,013 mi
KUL (2°44'44"N 101°42'36"E) AMS (52°18'31"N 4°45'50"E) 323322.5°(NW) 323322.5°(NW) 6,363 mi
AMS (52°18'31"N 4°45'50"E) BIO (43°18'04"N 2°54'38"W) 213212.8°(SW) 212211.7°(SW) 717 mi
BIO (43°18'04"N 2°54'38"W) PNA (42°46'12"N 1°38'47"W) 119119.4°(SE) 120120.1°(SE) 74 mi
PNA (42°46'12"N 1°38'47"W) MAD (40°29'37"N 3°34'00"W) 213213.0°(SW) 213213.3°(SW) 186 mi
MAD (40°29'37"N 3°34'00"W) LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) 010010.0°(N) 011010.8°(N) 773 mi
LHR (51°28'39"N 0°27'41"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 340340.1°(N) 341340.7°(N) 331 mi
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 100099.9°(E) 103102.7°(E) 3,633 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) SIN (1°21'33"N 103°59'22"E) 109109.0°(E) 107107.0°(E) 3,633 mi
SIN (1°21'33"N 103°59'22"E) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 301301.1°(NW) 301300.9°(NW) 3,633 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 322322.3°(NW) 320320.2°(NW) 3,633 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
32,010 mi
2 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) 263263.0°(W) 265265.4°(W) 42 mi
GLA (55°52'19"N 4°25'59"W) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 082082.1°(E) 085084.9°(E) 42 mi
83 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) IST (40°58'34"N 28°48'50"E) 112111.9°(E) 114114.3°(SE) 1,779 mi
IST (40°58'34"N 28°48'50"E) DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) 117117.2°(SE) 112111.8°(E) 1,870 mi
DXB (25°15'10"N 55°21'52"E) IST (40°58'34"N 28°48'50"E) 312312.0°(NW) 310310.0°(NW) 1,870 mi
IST (40°58'34"N 28°48'50"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 316316.5°(NW) 311311.1°(NW) 1,779 mi
7,299 mi
4 segment path:
EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) 085085.5°(E) 088087.8°(E) 624 mi
CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) AAR (56°18'00"N 10°37'08"E) 302301.7°(NW) 298298.0°(NW) 92 mi
AAR (56°18'00"N 10°37'08"E) CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) 120120.0°(SE) 117117.0°(SE) 92 mi
CPH (55°37'05"N 12°39'21"E) EDI (55°57'00"N 3°22'21"W) 279278.7°(W) 275275.1°(W) 624 mi
1,432 mi

 Code Dictionary
Code Source Location
EDI AIP Edinburgh [Edinburgh Airport (RAF Turnhouse)], Midlothian, SCT, GB
LGW AIP London [Gatwick Airport], Surrey, ENG, GB
DXB DAFIF Dubai [Intl], DU, AE
RUH AIP Riyadh [King Khaled Intl], SA
FRA AIP Frankfurt [Rhein-Main], HE, DE
NKG AIP Nanjing [Nanjing Lukou Intl], 32, CN
PEK AIP Beijing (Peking) [Capital Airport], 11, CN
LHR AIP London [Heathrow Airport], Middlesex, ENG, GB
CDG AIP Paris (Roissy-en-France) [Charles de Gaulle (Roissy)], J, FR
NRT AIP Tokyo (Narita) [New Tokyo Intl], 12, JP
GLA AIP Glasgow [Abbotsinch], Renfrewshire, SCT, GB
MEL DAFIF Melbourne [Tullamarine Intl], Vic, AU
YYZ AIP Toronto [Lester B. Pearson Intl], ON, CA
YQB AIP Québec City [Jean Lesage Intl (Québec City Jean Lesage Intl)], QC, CA
YOW AIP Ottawa [Macdonald-Cartier Intl], ON, CA
NCL AIP Newcastle upon Tyne [Newcastle Intl], Northumberland, ENG, GB
CPH AIP Copenhagen (København) [København Airport - Kastrup], DK
AAR AIP Århus (Aarhus) [Tirstrup], DK
SXF AIP Berlin (Schönefeld) [Berlin Schönefeld Airport (Berlin Brandenburg Intl)], BB, DE
MUC DAFIF Munich (München, Freising) [Franz Josef Strauss Intl (Munich Intl)], BY, DE
DUB AIP Dublin [Intl], County Dublin, Leinster, IE
YYC AIP Calgary [Intl], AB, CA
BNE DAFIF Brisbane [Intl], Qld, AU
EMA AIP Derby [East Midlands Airport (Castle Donnington)], Leicestershire, ENG, GB
CAN AIP Guangzhou (Canton) [Baiyun], 44, CN
AKL AIP Auckland [Intl], AUK, NZ
CHC AIP Christchurch [Intl], CAN, NZ
TUO AIP Taupo, WKO, NZ
FLR DAFIF Florence (Firenze) [Peretola (Amerigo Vespucci)], 52, IT
DOH other Doha [Hamad Intl (New Doha Intl)], QA
GRU AIP São Paulo [Guarulhos Intl (Governador André Franco Montoro)], SP, BR
TRG AIP Tauranga, BOP, NZ
KUL DAFIF Kuala Lumpur (Sepang) [Intl], 10, MY
BKI DAFIF Kota-Kinabalu [Intl], 12, MY
AMS DAFIF Amsterdam [Schiphol], NH, NL
BIO DAFIF Bilbao [Sondica], PV, ES
PNA DAFIF Pamplona, NC, ES
MAD DAFIF Madrid [Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas Intl], MD, ES
SIN AIP Singapore [Changi Intl], SG
IST AIP Istanbul [Atatürk Intl (Yesilköy Intl)], TR

 Map Controls
Paths 


Ranges 
  
  • Markers
  • Map Conf
  • Dist+Time
  • ETOPS
Simple
Raw 
Map Options
Style
Projection
Center

Path Options
Color
   Width
   Type

Range Options
Color
   Width
   Style
Units
   Minimum
Ground Speed or Mach
 
Rule Times
 60 minutes
 75 minutes
 90 minutes
 120 minutes
 138 minutes
 180 minutes
 207 minutes
 240 minutes
 330 minutes
   Engine-Out Speed
 
 

Copyright © 1996-2017 Karl L. Swartz. All rights reserved.
The Great Circle Mapper name and logo are trademarks of the Great Circle Mapper.
All other trademarks mentioned herein belong to their respective owners.
Please see credits for attibutions and further copyright information.

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