The DC-9 and 737 could almost make it to many Caribbean destinations under the 60-minute rule, but not quite. Turbine (jet) engines are more reliable than piston engines, so the FAA and other agencies granted exemptions to allow these aircraft to fly up to 75 and the 85 minutes from airports.
During the development of the Boeing 767 it was recognized that the aircraft was capable of long flights which would take it over more remote stretches of water than even the Caribbean 85-minute rule would allow. That led to the development of the first ETOPS rules, which initially allowed the 767 to fly across the North Atlantic between North America and Europe. Other twin-engined aircraft were soon included and distances were extended.
With improved aircraft technology and engine reliability it was recognized that standards for operations in remote areas of the world should be applied to all airliners, not just those with two engines. The International Civial Aviation Organization (ICAO) now defines ETOPS to be Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards while the FAA uses the simpler Extended Operations.
For additional information, see the following:
For example, airliners flying between North America and Europe are usually within 120 minutes from a suitable place to land and can operate with a 120-minute rule-time. Between California and Hawaii, airliners require a 180-minute rule time.
You may select a different engine-out speed by entering your own speed (between 200 and 600 knots) or by selecting typical engine-out speeds for a selection of aircraft.
The Great Circle Mapper's ETOPS option shades no-go areas on the map.
Second, just because you're over land doesn't mean you can land a large commercial airliner there. Antarctica, for example, has few airports and is quite rugged. Air transport in Antarctica often uses military or other aircraft, often equipped with skis or other special equipment for landing on packed snow or ice. These landing facilities are not suitable for a large, widebody airliner.
The airport also has a very short runway and often-poor weather.
Information on this site may not be accurate or current and is not valid for flight planning or navigation. No warranty of fitness for any purpose is made or implied. Flight planning and navigation should only be done using official charts.
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Karl L. Swartz.
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